Energy to form to energy

Space curves

The initial inspiration came from a series of Harmonographs generated by Edward Lias in the 1960’s, published in  Photo Lettering ‘Alphabet Thesaurus, Vol 2.

Flux Sculpture by Ben Storch
Flux sculpture by Ben Storch, Stainless steel tube and brass links
Compound elliptical motions


A harmonograph consists of two pendulums and a means to record their compound rotation. In some constructions, the pendulums are separate and don’t influence each other, and in some one is attached to the other.

Compound orbits

There are similaries to the three body problem in physics, where a moon orbits two planets, or a planet orbits two suns.

Freely twisting

I felt that these diagrams looked three dimensional, so I wanted to understand how the surface would have to be stretched to follow such a path.


Looking into the metalsmithing techniques required, I learned about the work of Heikki Seppa and Michael Good, who had done some wonderful work in the area.

Research milestones


Large scale anticlastic works


Medium scale anticlastic works


First 3D prints from mathematically modelled minimal surfaces